United States Approves Sale Of Lab Grown Meat

United States has recently approved production and sales of lab grown meat for the first time. Two companies of United States namely ‘ Good meat and Upside have recently received approvals for production and selling of lab grown meat . The approval has been given by Food And Drug Administration (FDA) of United States. Lab grown meats are known by various names such as Cell Cultivated meat, Cultured meat etc. Apart from U.S. another country that produces and sells lab grown meat is Singapore in the year 2020.

before diving deep down into the article let first understand what are lab grown meats .

Lab Grown Meats:

Lab grown meats are mainly those meats that are produced by culturing animal cells in vitro. it is a form of cellular agriculture. lab grown meats are also known by the name cultured meats. cultured meat is produced using tissue engineering techniques used in regenerative medicine . cultured meat has the potential to address various issues such as environmental impact of meat production , animal welfare , food security , human health The applications for cultured meat led to ethical , health , environmental , cultural and economic discussions. cultured meats can be of various types based on the animals such as pig, chicken, buffalo, pork .

Process of growing cultured meats:

Cell lines

Cellular agriculture cell lines generally stem cells . stem cells are undifferentiated cells which have the potential to become many or all kinds of specialized cell types. totipotent cells and pluripotent cells plays an significant role in the whole mechanism. Totipotent cells have the capacity to differentiate into all the different cell types of the body on the other hand pluripotent cells can mature into all cell types and multipotent stem cells can differentiate into several specialized cell types . unipotent stem cells can differentiate into one specific cell. the pluripotent stem cells can be an ideal source an example of it is embryonic stem cells . beneficial characteristics of stem cells include immortality, proliferative ability , serum independence . cell lines can be collected from a primary source that is through a biopsy on an animal under anasthesia.

Growth medium:

When the cell lines are established, they are immersed in a culture media to induce them to proliferate. culture media are typically formulated from basal media that provide cells with carbohydrate , fats, proteins and salts. once a cell consumes a adequate amount the process of differentiation begins . the culture media can be supplemented with additives to enhance textures of the meat. once differentiation begins muscle fibres begin to contract and generate lactic acid

Scaffold:

In cultured meats or products that are characterized by their overall configuration as well as cell type they must be seeded to scaffolds. Scaffolds are molds which are used to reflect and encourage the cells to organize into a larger structure . when the cells are developed in In vivo they are affected by their interactions with the extracellular matrix . the extracellular matrix or ECM is the mixture of glycoproteins, collagen and enzymes.

Biochemical Properties:

The biochemical properties of the ECM should be similar to the scaffold. it must facilitate cell adhesion with the help of the textural qualities, and chemical bonding.

Additive Manufacturing:

Additive Manufacturing is an essential step . this technique was initially practiced for applications in manufacturing objects made out of plastic , metal , glass In cultured meat technique the additive manufacturing process involves a filament of muscle cells which can be printed into a structure which resembles a finished meat product which can be further processed for cell maturation . there is another method called as 3D Bioprinting which is used to produce cultured meat that resembles the textures and appearance of real meats.

Bioreactor:

Bioreactors are large sized machines very much similar to brewery tanks which will expose the cells to a large variety of environmental factors that are necessary to promote either proliferation and differentiation. the temperature of the bioreactor must replicate in vivo conditions. cells can be cultivated in continuous and fed batch systems . stirred tank bioreactors are the most significant ones. An impeller increases the flow which results into the exchange of oxygen in the media. this type of systems are mostly used for suspended cultures.

Challenges:

Growth Factors:

The culture media is an important in in vitro cultivation . it is responsible for providing the macromolecules, nutrients and growth factors which is necessary for cell proliferation . sourcing factors is one of the significant step. it includes the use of fetal bovine serum which is a blood product extracted from fetal cows . its production is unethical . it is also the most costly cultured meat.

Surface Area:

Another challenge to bioreactors and scaffolds is surface area . In the cell proliferation phase prior to the introduction of the scaffold many cell types used to be attached to the surface . this poses practical challenges . In the differentiation phase the cells may be seeded to a scaffold and so it do not requires the use of microcarriers

Consumer Acceptance:

Consumer Acceptance is an another challenge . there are several factors of consumer acceptance of cultured meat that are identified. healthiness, safety, nutritional characteristics , sustainability , taste all are contributing factors. global market acceptance has not been accessed . there is also a lack of studies relating the methods of producing cultured meat.

Why Do We Need Cultured Meat:

Beneficial for animals:

Cultured meat is beneficial for animals .the process of creating and producing cultivated meat does not harm animals .cultured meats are produced are from a single cell for a single time . this eliminates the need for countless harmful procedures used in traditional farming.

Land degradation is reduced:

Meat production requires approximately 70% of land . cultured meat production results in the less use of land for livestock production.

Food Security :

Cultured meat results in ensuring food security as it makes meats and food accessible to every corner of the globe respectively. today natural resources are needed such as land , water and all these resources are limited so it will become impossible to raise animals to feed the entire population . lab grown meats or cultivated meats will increase access to food .

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